KOENIG: his first Powered Printing Machines 1803 - 1818 (continued)

The Completing [Perfecting] Machine (bookwork and newspapers)


__The following is a facsimile of Bauer's description, which was written in both German and English. Modern terms added in square brackets [ ].

Fourth Patent, 1814 ''
It was obtained for certain additional improvements in my method of printing by means of machinery, and the specification enrolled the 22nd June, 1816. It concerns especially a principle and an apparatus, to push the paper, when printed on one side, further onto another forme, that it may be printed likewise on the other side before it is taken out of the machine. It contains  moreover a series of improvements in the printing and inking apparatus, which the deployment of the machines described under the former patents did suggest, especially the moulding of the inking cylinder [composition rollers], the continual motion of the printing cylinder and a method, occasioned hereby, to apply the paper, to push it on by means of tapes and to take it off again. In far the most part of printing machines, which in England were constructed since that time, these improvements have been made of. Out of the principles of this patent there were produced the completing machine [perfecting machine], the improved common printing machine [previous page] and the improved double machine.'

__'An engraving of this machine is shown above. A view will teach us, that it is a combination of two machines into one.  It contains accordingly two formes, two printing cylinders, two inking apparatus, but only one feeder, and in place of the second the above mentioned register apparatus, inserted between both printing cylinders. The first (white printing) forme lies upon the coffin of the machine to the left, the second (reiteration) [back-up] forme upon the coffin of the machine to the right. The inking apparatus, the coffins and the printing cylinders as likewise the register apparatus are in continual motion, the feeder however is put into motion for each single sheet by the wheel-work, (diagram below) and in the same way it is brought to rest again.. Upon each printing cylinder there is only one place of the size of the sheet covered with printing cloth  [cylinder packing]; therefore the forme may return freely  under that part of the circumference which is not covered. The formes however are blackened at each passing beneath their inking cylinder. When therefore a sheet of paper on the feeder, while it is in a state of repose, is put upon the marks and the apparatus is set to move; then the paper is carried, between two rows of tapes (which we call inner and outer friskets) and by these put round the  first printing cylinder. Here the paper meets with the forme already blackened and is printed on one side. The inner frisket, which, here lies between the printing cylinder and the paper, takes the paper from off the printing cylinder and is laid itself together with this and with the outer frisket upon the register apparatus, which sustains the paper till it is arrived in a vertical position over the second printing cylinder. Then the sheet is kept fast between the two friskets, put round the second cylinder (to the right) and, there meeting with the second forme, it is printed on the other side. It will be clearly understood, that the sheet has turned round on its course only by the form of this course -- being an "S" --  and that by this contrivance the outer frisket has been turned to an inner one, which inner frisket now takes the sheet from off the second printing cylinder, putting it, printed on both sides, upon the board in the middle of the machine. The friskets afterwards return, conducted by cylinders and rolls, into their principle condition.

__In order to obtain registers, it is necessary, that the sheet effect from one printing cylinder to the other just so many courses as a point in the circumference makes in the same time. To this end a contrivance is made, to adjust the  length of the course of the sheet.

Image from reverse side,  showing the course of the paper. 

__The first machine of this sort was finished in February 1816 and put up (together with the first common cylindrical machine) in the establishment of Messrs. Bensley and Son, where, moved by the power of steam, it was made use of for the printing of books. It produced 900-1000 sheets, printed on both sides, per hour. Mr. Th. Bensley expressed his complete satisfaction to the public in the Literary Gazette of the 3rd and 10th January 1818.
__About the same time there were printed upon this press amongst other books the 'Institutions of Physiology' by Blumenbach, translated from the latin of the third edition by J. Elliotson, M.D., the first book, which ever was printed from the beginning to the end by a machine.'